On the basis of archival documents that have now become available, the problem of organizing scientific research in the USSR in the mid-1950s is being investigated, the study of which is extremely relevant in the current conditions, sharply demanding the technological sovereignty of the Russian Federation. The relevance of the publication is also determined by the currently intensified discussions regarding the effectiveness of state economic policy in the 1950s, attempts to identify the causes of the marked slowdown in modernization processes in the late Soviet period of national history. The object of the study is the state policy of the USSR in the scientific and technical sphere in the 1950s. The subject of the study is the process of organizing scientific research during the specified period. The principles of historicism, objectivity and reliability served the methodological basis of the study. The modernization theory is accepted as the basic one in the work. The publication for the first time introduces into scientific circulation the data from declassified archival documents of the Central Committee of the CPSU, which allow to bring certainty to the ongoing disputes about the results of scientific and technical policy in the 1950s. Their analysis makes it possible to consider with a greater degree of reliability individual plots of the problem we are interested in. The conclusion is formulated about the legitimacy and validity of the conclusions of the representatives of the scientific elite of the country, stating a very contradictory situation in the scientific and technical sphere, especially in the field of research and development.
Key words: research and development, organization, implementation, scientific and technical potential, technological lag.Бодрова-Калинов