The article is devoted to the famous Russian thinker of the 19th century N.Y. Danilevsky. The study focuses on some assessments of the author of the fundamental work “Russia and Europe” of the peasant reform of 1861, which is the scientific novelty of the work. It is emphasized that the abolition of serfdom was in the nature of a social compromise: the authorities, the nobility and the peasants came to a final consensus through mutual concessions. Such a scenario of resolving the peasant question became possible because of the inherent tolerance of the Slavic cultural and historical type (according to Danilevsky’s concept).
Key words: Danilevsky, Russia and Europe, peasantry, Slavs, cultural and historical type, abolition of serfdom, peasant reform.